#### A

age of diurnal inequality = 0.911(K

_{1}° - O

_{1}°) hours.

age of parallax inequality = 1.837(M

_{2}° - N

_{2}°) hours.

age of phase inequality = 0.984(S

_{2}° - M

_{2}°) hours.

^{-4}radian/second.

^{6}m

^{3}/s. Same as West Wind Drift.

#### B

#### C

_{0};. Since 1980, chart datum has been implemented to mean lower low water for all marine waters of the United States, its territories, Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. See datum and National Tidal Datum Convention of 1980.

#### D

_{s,t,p})

^{3}, is numerically equivalent to specific gravity and is a function of salinity, temperature, and pressure. See specific volume anomaly, thermosteric anomaly, sigma-t, and sigma-zero.

#### E

^{2}: where A and B are respectively the semimajor and semiminor axes of the orbit.

G = κ + pL

g = κ′ = G - aS / 15

in which L is the longitude of the place and S is the longitude of the time meridian, these being taken as positive for west longitude and negative for east longitude; p is the number of constituent periods in the constituent day and is equal to 0 for all long-period constituents, 1 for diurnal constituents, 2 for semidiurnal constituents,andso forth; and a is the hourly speed of the constituent, all angular measurements being expressed in degrees.

(2) As used in tidal datum determination, it is a 19-year cycle over which tidal height observations are meaned in order to establish the various datums. As there are periodic and apparent secular trends in sea level, a specific 19-year cycle (the National Tidal Datum Epoch) is selected so that all tidal datum determinations throughout the United States, its territories, Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, will have a common reference. See National Tidal Datum Epoch.

_{o}+ u).

_{2}, λ

_{2}, and ρ

_{1}

#### F

y = A + A

_{1}sin x + A

_{2}sin 2x + A

_{3}sin 3x + ... B

_{1}cos x + B

_{2}cos 2x + B

_{3}cos 3x + ...

By taking a sufficient number of terms the series may be assumed to represent any periodic function of x.

#### G

^{2}/ s

^{2}, or 1 joule per kilogram, J / kg.

ΔD = ∫ | P_{2} | δdp |

P_{1} |

where p is the pressure and δ, the specific volume anomaly. P

_{1}and P

_{2}are the pressures at the two surfaces.

Greenwich interval = local interval + 0.069L

where L is the west longitude of the local meridian in degrees. For east longitude, L is to be considered negative.

#### H

h = 0.041,068,64° per solar hour.

y = A cos at TODO: investigate mathjax.

in which y is a function if time (t), A is a constant coefficient, and a is the rate of change in the angle at.

#### I

_{2}, S

_{2}, K

_{1}, and O

_{1}.

^{-4}radians s

^{-1}and θ = latitude.

IGLD 1985 uses dynamic heights as the vertical reference standard and lakes station water level elevations are adjusted to provide a level geopotential plane for lake level reference.

#### J

_{1}

_{1}, modulates the amplitudes of the declinational K

_{1}, for the effect of the Moon's elliptical orbit.

Speed = T + s + h - p = 15.585,443,3° per solar hour.

#### K

_{1}

_{1}, expresses the effect of the Moon's declination. They account for diurnal inequality and, at extremes, diurnal tides. With P

_{1}, it expresses the effect of the Sun's declination.

Speed = T + h = 15.041,068,6° per solar hour.

_{2}

_{2}and S

_{2}for the declinational effect of the Moon and Sun, respectively.

Speed = 2T + 2h = 30.082,137,3° per solar hour.

Black Tidein Japanese. A North Pacific Ocean current setting northeastward off the east coast of Taiwan and Japan from Taiwan to about latitude 35° north.

#### L

_{2}

_{2}, modulates the amplitude and frequency of M

_{2}for the effect of variation in the Moon's orbital speed due to its elliptical orbit.

Speed = 2T - s + 2h - p = 29.528,478,9° per solar hour.

_{2})

This constituent, with ν

_{2}, μ

_{2}, and (S

_{2}), modulates the amplitude and frequency of M

_{2}for the effects of variation in solar attraction of the Moon. This attraction results in a slight pear-shaped lunar ellipse and a difference in lunar orbital speed between motion toward and away from the Sun. Although (S

_{2}) has the same speed as S

_{2}, its amplitude is extremely small.

Speed = 2T - s + p = 29.455,625,3° per solar hour.

(2) An approximation of mean low water that has been adopted as a standard reference for a limited area and is retained for an indefinite period regardless of the fact that it may differ slightly from a better determination of mean low water from a subsequent series of observations. Used primarily for river and harbor engineering purposes. Boston low water datum is an example.

_{2}, S

_{2}, and K

_{2}.

_{1}, and K

_{2}, which are derived partly from the development of the lunar tide and partly from the solar tide, the constituent speeds being the same in both cases. Also, the lunisolar synodic fortnightly constituent MSf.

#### M

_{1}

_{1}, modulates the amplitude of the declinational K

_{1}, for the effect of the Moon's elliptical orbit. A slightly slower constituent, designated (M

_{1}), with Q

_{1}, modulates the amplitude and frequency of the declinational O

_{1}, for the same effect.

Speed = T - s + h + p = 14.496,693,9° per solar hour.

_{2}

Speed = 2T - 2s + 2h = 28.984,104,2° per solar hour.

_{3}

Speed = 3T - 3s + 3h = 43.476,156,3° per solar hour.

_{4}, M

_{6}, M

_{8}

Speed of M

_{4}= 2M

_{2}= 4T - 4s + 4h = 57.968,208,4° per solar hour.

Speed of M

_{6}= 3M

_{2}= 6T - 6s + 6h = 86.952,312,7° per solar hour.

Speed of M

_{8}= 4M

_{2}= 8T - 8s + 8h = 115.936,416,9° per solar hour.

_{l}. See storm surge.

Speed = 2s = 1.098,033,1° per solar hour.

Speed = s - p = 0.544,374,7° per solar hour.

MLW = MTL - (0.5*MN)

MHW = MLW + MN

MLLW = DTL - (0.5*GT)

MHHW = MLLW + GT

Speed = 2s - 2h = 1.015,895,8° per solar hour.

_{2})

Speed = 2T - 4s + 4h = 27.968,208,4° per solar hour.

#### N

N = - 0.002,206,41° per solar hour.

_{2}

_{2}

Speed = 2T- 3s + 2h + p = 28.439,729,5° per solar hour.

_{2})

Speed = 2T - 3s + 4h - p = 28.512,583,1° per solar hour.

#### O

_{1}

_{1}.

Speed = T - 2s + h = 13.943,035,6° per solar hour.

_{1}

Speed = T + 2s + h = 16.139,101,7° per solar hour.

_{2}and S

_{2}, and are designated by the symbols M

_{4}, M

_{6}, M

_{8}, S

_{4}, S

_{6}, etc. The magnitudes of these harmonics relative to those of the fundamental constituents are usually greater in the tidal current than in the tide.

#### P

p = 0.004,641,83° per solar hour.

_{1}

p

_{1}= 0.000,001,96° per solar hour.

Solar diurnal constituent. See K

_{1}.

Speed = T - h = 14.958,931,4° per solar hour.

(2) A particular instant of a periodic function expressed in angular measure and reckoned from the time of its maximum value, the entire period of the function being 360°. The maximum and minimum of a harmonic constituent have phase values of 0° and180°, respectively.

A national system of current, water level, and other oceanographical and meteorological sensors telemetering data in real-time to central locations for storage, processing, and dissemination. Available to pilots, mariners, the U.S. Coast Guard, and other marine interests in voice or digital form. First introduced in Tampa Bay.

#### Q

_{l}

_{1}.

Speed = T - 3s + h + p = 13.398,660,9° per solar hour.

#### R

_{2}

_{2}for the effect of variation in the Earth's orbital speed due to its elliptical orbit.

Speed = 2T + h - p

_{1}= 30.041,066,7° per solar hour.

*Gymnodinium*and

*Gonyaulax*) which turn the sea red and are frequently associated with a deterioration in water quality. The color occurs as a result of the reaction of a red pigment, peridinin, to light during photosynthesis. These toxic algal blooms pose a serious threat to marine life and are potentially harmful to humans. The term has no connection with astronomic tides. However, its association with the word "tide" is from popular observations of its movements with tidal currents in estuarine waters.

_{i}(t) and an output function X

_{O}(t) can be related according to the formula:

X_{0}(t) = | ∫ | ∞ | X_{i} (t - τ)W(τ)dτ + noise(t) | |

0 |

where W(τ) is the impulse response of the system and its Fourier transform:

Z_{0}(t) = | ∫ | ∞ | W (τ)e^{-2πifτ} = R(f)e^{iΦ(f)} | |

0 |

is the system's admittance (coherent output/input) at frequency f. In practice, the integrals are replaced by summations; X

_{i}, W, and Z are generally complex. The discrete set of W values are termed response weights; X

_{O}(t) is ordinarily an observed tidal time series and X

_{i}(t) the tide potential or the tide at some nearby place. A future prediction can be prepared by applying the weights to an appropriate X

_{i}(t) series. In general:

| Z | = R(f) and Tan(Z) = Φ(f)

measure the relative magnification and phase lead of the station at frequency f.

_{1})

Speed = T - 3s + 3h - p = 12.471,514,5° per solar hour.

See overfalls.

#### S

s = 0.549,016,53° per solar hour. S1-Solar diurnal constituent.

_{1}

Speed = T = 15.000,000,0° per solar hour.

_{2}

Speed = 2T = 30.000,000,0° per solar hour.

_{4}, S

_{6}

Speed of S

_{4}= 2S

_{2}= 4T = 60.000,000,0° per solar hour.

Speed of S

_{6}= 3S

_{2}= 6T = 90.000,000,0° per solar hour.

Speed = h = 0.041,068,64° per solar hour.

Speed = 2h = 0.082,137,3° per solar hour.

S(‰) = 1.806,55 x Cl (‰)

Where Cl(‰) is chlorinity in parts per thousand. See chlorinity.

Period (T) = 2L / √gd

in which L is the length, d the average depth of the body of water, and g the acceleration of gravity. See standing wave.

C = √gd

where C is the wave speed, g the acceleration of gravity, and d the depth. Tidal waves are shallow water waves.

_{t})

σ

_{t}= (ρ

_{s,t,p}- 1)1,000

_{0})

σ

_{0}= (ρ

_{s,t,o}- 1)1,000

(2) The observed tide in areas where the solar tide is dominant. This condition provides for phase repetition at about the same time each solar day.

C = √g(d + h)

in which C = rate of advance, g = acceleration of gravity, d = depth of water, and h = height of wave, the depth and height being measured from the undisturbed water level.

δ=α

_{s,t,p}- α

_{35,o,p}

_{s,t,p})

MLW = MTL - (0.5*MN)

MHW = MLW + MN

MLLW = MLW - DLQ

MHHW = MHW + DHQ

T = 2L / √gd

in which T is the period of wave, L the length of the basin, d the depth of water, and g the acceleration of gravity. A stationary wave may be resolve d into two progressive waves of equal amplitude and equal speeds moving in opposite directions.

(2) A station listed in the Tidal Current Tables for which predictions are to be obtained by means of differences and ratios applied to the full predictions at a reference station. See reference station.

(2) A station listed in the Tide Tables from which predictions are to be obtained by means of differences and ratios applied to the full predictions at a reference station. See reference station.

#### T

T = 15° per mean solar hour.

_{2}

_{2}.

Speed = 2T - h + p

_{1}= 29.958,933,3° per solar hour.

_{T}, Δ′, or Δ

_{s,t})

_{1}+ O

_{1}to M

_{2}+ S

_{2}is less than 0.25, the tide is classified as semidiurnal; where the ratio is from 0.25 to 1.5, the tide is mixed, mainly semidiurnal; where the ratio is from 1.5 to 3.0, the tide is mixed, mainly diurnal; and where greater than 3.0, diurnal.

#### U

#### V

_{0}+ u