NOAA Web Site Link Tides and Currents Home Page Transparent placeholder image

Bench Mark Sheet for 9491253, Kivalina AK

Superseded Epoch

Large map location marker Station Location
Small red map location marker Published bench mark
Small blue map location marker Unpublished bench mark

Bench mark positions only appear on the map if their coordinates in the CO-OPS database are at the precision of degrees/minutes/seconds/and tenths of seconds. If the coordinates are less precise, the mark will not appear.

Printable version

                          U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE
                National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
                            National Ocean Service
Datums Page                                                        Page  1 of  6

                                                                                
Station ID: 9491253                         PUBLICATION DATE:  05/12/2004
Name:       KIVALINA                                          
            AK
NOAA Chart: 16005                           Latitude:   67° 43.6' N (  67.72670)
USGS Quad:  NOATAK (C-5)                    Longitude: 164° 35.5' W (-164.59200)


To reach the tidal bench marks from the Kivalina airport, proceed 0.4 km (0.25
mi) SE along the Chukohi Sea beach to the SW wall of the McQueen school.  The
bubbler tide gauges were mounted inside the north arctic entry way of the
Kivalina school principal's house which is near the SW corner of the McQueen
school and is perpendicular to the school.  The bench marks are located along
the Chukchi Sea beach and along Bering Street.  


                         T I D A L   B E N C H   M A R K S


                 PRIMARY BENCH MARK STAMPING:   
                         DESIGNATION:          949 1253 E
                         ALIAS:                1253 E 1984

MONUMENTATION:           Metal Rod                             VM#:        13576
AGENCY:                  Unknown                               IDB PID#:        
SETTING CLASSIFICATION:  Stainless steel rod                   OPUS PID#: BBBH52
LATITUDE:   67° 43.6' N (  67.72670)          LONGITUDE: 164° 32.4' W (-164.54000)


The primary bench mark is located 28.59 m (93.8 ft) ESE (110  magnetic) of bench
mark WCMC C4 S2248 C7 S5582 1971 1987, 21 m (69 ft) SSE (159  magnetic) of the
west corner of the new fuel farm fence corner, 13.1 m (43.0 ft) WSW (240 
magnetic) of the SE corner of the new fuel farm fence corner, and 8 m (26 ft)
east of the cenrterline of an ATV trail.  The bench mark is set 0.11 m (0.7 ft)
below the top of the PVC pipe, being the top of a stainless steel rod driven
13.1 m (43 ft), and encased in a 0.125 m (0.4 ft) diameter x 0.11 m (0.4 ft)
high black PVC pipe.

                          U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE
                National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
                            National Ocean Service
                                                                   Page  2 of  6

                                                                                
Station ID: 9491253                         PUBLICATION DATE:  05/12/2004
Name:       KIVALINA                                          
            AK
NOAA Chart: 16005                           Latitude:   67° 43.6' N (  67.72670)
USGS Quad:  NOATAK (C-5)                    Longitude: 164° 35.5' W (-164.59200)


                         T I D A L   B E N C H   M A R K S


                         BENCH MARK STAMPING:   
                         DESIGNATION:          949 1253 B
                         ALIAS:                1253 B 1984

MONUMENTATION:           Metal Rod                             VM#:        13573
AGENCY:                  Unknown                               IDB PID#:        
SETTING CLASSIFICATION:  Stainless steel rod                   OPUS PID:        
LATITUDE:   67° 43.6' N (  67.72670)          LONGITUDE: 164° 32.3' W (-164.53800)


The bench mark is located 19.65 m (64.5 ft) ESE (110  magnetic) of the side of a
power pole, and 3.9 m (12.8 ft) SE (140  magnetic) of the centerline of a NE-SW
running dirt road leading to the beach.  The bench mark is set 2 cm (0.1 ft)
above the ground, being the top of a stainless steel rod driven 12.5 m (51 ft),
and encased in a 0.125 m (0.4 ft) diameter black PVC pipe.



                         BENCH MARK STAMPING:   
                         DESIGNATION:          949 1253 D
                         ALIAS:                1253 D 1984

MONUMENTATION:           Metal Rod                             VM#:        13575
AGENCY:                  Unknown                               IDB PID#:        
SETTING CLASSIFICATION:  Stainless steel rod                   OPUS PID:        
LATITUDE:   67° 43.5' N (  67.72500)          LONGITUDE: 164° 32.1' W (-164.53500)


The bench mark is located 40.81 m (133.9 ft) WNW (300  magnetic) of bench mark
WCMC C4 S2246 C7 S5582 1971 1987, 25.9 m (85.0 ft) SW (230  magnetic) of the SW
corner of the southern-most teacher housing buildings, 24.65 m (80.9 ft) SSE
(152  magnetic) from a telephone pole, 17 m (56 ft) east of the vegetation -
beach line, and 4.21 m (13.8 ft) SW (224  magnetic) of a wind generator.  The
bench mark is set 0.18 m (0.6 ft) below the top of the PVC pipe, being the top
of a stainless steel rod driven 10 m (33 ft), and encased in a 0.125 m (0.4 ft)
diameter x 0.17 m (0.6 ft) high black PVC pipe.        

                          U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE
                National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
                            National Ocean Service
                                                                   Page  3 of  6

                                                                                
Station ID: 9491253                         PUBLICATION DATE:  05/12/2004
Name:       KIVALINA                                          
            AK
NOAA Chart: 16005                           Latitude:   67° 43.6' N (  67.72670)
USGS Quad:  NOATAK (C-5)                    Longitude: 164° 35.5' W (-164.59200)


                         T I D A L   B E N C H   M A R K S


                         BENCH MARK STAMPING:   
                         DESIGNATION:          949 1253 G
                         ALIAS:                1253 G 2003

MONUMENTATION:           Metal Rod                             VM#:        17430
AGENCY:                  National Ocean Service (NOS)          IDB PID#:        
SETTING CLASSIFICATION:  Stainless steel rod                   OPUS PID:        
LATITUDE:   67° 43.6' N (  67.72670)          LONGITUDE: 164° 32.4' W (-164.54000)


The bench mark is located 19.35 m (63.5 ft) NE (63  magnetic) of the SE corner
of the Post Office, 10.25 m (33.6 ft) from the NE corner of the Post Office and
inline with the north wall, 2.59 m (8.5 ft) east of a power pole, and 1.31 m
(4.3 ft) west of a power pole.  The bench mark is set 2 cm (0.1 ft) below grade,
being the top of a rounded off stainless steel rod with punch mark, driven 5.0 m
(17 ft) to refusal, and encased in a 0.18 m (0.6 ft) diameter NGS Geodetic
Control Mark logo cover.



                         BENCH MARK STAMPING:  C1 S2246 C8 S5582 1971 1987
                         DESIGNATION:          949 1253 BLM C1C8

MONUMENTATION:           Survey disk                           VM#:        17431
AGENCY:                  Department of Interior, Bureau of Land
                         Management                            IDB PID#:        
SETTING CLASSIFICATION:  Metal post                            OPUS PID:        
LATITUDE:   67° 43.5' N (  67.72500)          LONGITUDE: 164° 32.0' W (-164.53300)


The bench mark is a disk attached to a metal post, 59.19 m (194.2 ft) NE (40 
magnetic) of bench mark WCMC C4 S2248 C7 S5582 1971 1987, 20.60 m (67.6 ft) east
of the east corner of the old fuel farm fence corner, 13.29 m (43.6 ft) SE (135 
magnetic) of a power pole, 11.40 m (37.4 ft) SSW (210  magnetic) of the SW
corner of a red house, 4.51 m (14.8 ft) north of the north corner of the fuel
dispensing building, and flush with the ground.

                          U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE
                National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
                            National Ocean Service
                                                                   Page  4 of  6

                                                                                
Station ID: 9491253                         PUBLICATION DATE:  05/12/2004
Name:       KIVALINA                                          
            AK
NOAA Chart: 16005                           Latitude:   67° 43.6' N (  67.72670)
USGS Quad:  NOATAK (C-5)                    Longitude: 164° 35.5' W (-164.59200)


                         T I D A L   B E N C H   M A R K S


                         BENCH MARK STAMPING:  WCMC C4 S2246 C7 S5582 1971 1987
                         DESIGNATION:          949 1253 BLM C4C7

MONUMENTATION:           Survey disk                           VM#:        17432
AGENCY:                  Department of Interior, Bureau of Land
                         Management                            IDB PID#:        
SETTING CLASSIFICATION:  Metal post                            OPUS PID:        
LATITUDE:   67° 43.5' N (  67.72500)          LONGITUDE: 164° 32.0' W (-164.53300)


The bench mark is a disk attached to a metal post, 59.19 m (194.2 ft) SW (220 
magnetic) of bench mark C1 S2248 C8 S5582 1971 1987, 40.81 m (133.9 ft) ESE (120
 magnetic) of bench mark 949 1253 D, 30.21 m (99.1 ft) SSW (200  magnetic) of
the SE corner of the old fuel farm fence corner, 28.59 m (93.8 ft) west (280 
magnetic) of bench mark 949 1243 E, 25.82 m (84.7 ft) WSW (240  magnetic) of the
west corner of the new fuel tank farm fence, 22.49 m ((73.8 ft) east of the
vegetation and beach line, and flush with the ground.

                          U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE
                National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
                            National Ocean Service
                                                                   Page  5 of  6

                                                                                
Station ID: 9491253                         PUBLICATION DATE:  05/12/2004
Name:       KIVALINA                                          
            AK
NOAA Chart: 16005                           Latitude:   67° 43.6' N (  67.72670)
USGS Quad:  NOATAK (C-5)                    Longitude: 164° 35.5' W (-164.59200)


                            T I D A L   D A T U M S 


Tidal datums at KIVALINA based on:

     LENGTH OF SERIES:      1 YEAR
     TIME PERIOD:           October 1985 - September 1986
     TIDAL EPOCH:            
     CONTROL TIDE STATION:   


Elevations of tidal datums referred to Mean Lower Low Water (MLLW), in METERS:

     HIGHEST OBSERVED WATER LEVEL (11/10/1985)         =  1.268
     MEAN HIGHER HIGH WATER                     MHHW   =  0.275
     MEAN HIGH WATER                            MHW    =  0.234
     MEAN SEA LEVEL                             MSL    =  0.134
     MEAN TIDE LEVEL                            MTL    =  0.132
     MEAN LOW WATER                             MLW    =  0.029
     MEAN LOWER LOW WATER                       MLLW   =  0.000
     LOWEST  OBSERVED WATER LEVEL (12/19/1985)         = -0.951

North American Vertical Datum (NAVD88)

Bench Mark Elevation Information                In METERS above:

     Stamping or Designation                    MLLW        MHW

     949 1253 E                                  3.846    3.612
     949 1253 B                                  3.560    3.326
     949 1253 D                                  3.407    3.173
     949 1253 G                                  4.166    3.932
     C1 S2246 C8 S5582 1971 1987                 3.251    3.017
     WCMC C4 S2246 C7 S5582 1971 1987            3.753    3.519


Foot Notes:

Tidal Datums for Kivalina, located in northwest Alaska, are based on an average
from one year of data. There is not an adequate control station in the region
for referencing the tidal datums to a 19 year, National Tidal Datum Epoch
(NTDE).

                          U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE
                National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
                            National Ocean Service
                                                                   Page  6 of  6

                                                                                
Station ID: 9491253                         PUBLICATION DATE:  05/12/2004
Name:       KIVALINA                                          
            AK
NOAA Chart: 16005                           Latitude:   67° 43.6' N (  67.72670)
USGS Quad:  NOATAK (C-5)                    Longitude: 164° 35.5' W (-164.59200)


                             D E F I N I T I O N S


Mean Sea Level (MSL) is a tidal datum determined over a 19-year National Tidal
Datum Epoch.  It pertains to local mean sea level and should not be confused
with the fixed datums of North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD88).

NAVD88 is a fixed datum derived from a simultaneous, least squares, minimum
constraint adjustment of Canadian/Mexican/United States leveling observations.
Local mean sea level observed at Father Point/Rimouski, Canada was held fixed as
the single initial constraint.  NAVD88 replaces NGVD29 as the national
standard geodetic reference for heights.  Bench mark elevations relative to
NAVD88 are available from NGS through the World Wide Web at 
National Geodetic Survey.

NGVD29 is a fixed datum adopted as a national standard geodetic reference for
heights but is now considered superseded.  NGVD29 is sometimes referred to as
Sea Level Datum of 1929 or as Mean Sea Level on some early issues of Geological
Survey Topographic Quads.  NGVD29 was originally derived from a general
adjustment of the first-order leveling networks of the U.S. and Canada after
holding mean sea level observed at 26 long term tide stations as fixed.
Numerous local and wide-spread adjustments have been made since establishment in
1929.  Bench mark elevations relative to NGVD29 are available from the National
Geodetic Survey (NGS) data base via the World Wide Web at 
National Geodetic Survey.

NAVD88 and NGVD29 are fixed geodetic datums whose elevation relationships to
local MSL and other tidal datums may not be consistent from one location to
another.

The Vertical Mark Number (VM#) and PID# shown on the bench mark sheet are unique
identifiers for bench marks in the tidal and geodetic databases, respectively.
Each bench mark in either database has a single, unique VM# and/or PID# assigned.
Where both VM# and PID# are indicated, both tidal and geodetic elevations are
available for the bench mark listed. The NGS's Integrated Data Base (IDB PID)
provides geodetic datum based on traditionally leveled and bluebooked ties to
the National Spatial Reference System(NSRS) https://www.ngs.noaa.gov/datasheets/.
The NGS Online Positioning User Service (OPUS PID) provides geodetic datum based
on GPS position & tie it to the NSRS https://www.ngs.noaa.gov/OPUS/.

The NAVD88 elevation is shown on the Elevations of Tidal Datums Table Referred
to MLLW only when two or more of the bench marks listed have NAVD88 elevations.
The NAVD88 elevation relationship shown in the table is derived from an average
of several bench mark elevations relative to tide station datum.  As a result of
this averaging, NAVD88 bench mark elevations computed indirectly from the tidal
datums elevation table may differ slightly from NAVD88 elevations listed for
each bench mark in the NGS database.

Return to Top
Products available at 9491253 Kivalina, AK

Revised: 08/08/2018
NOAA / National Ocean Service
Web site owner: Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services